160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE11 theater productions to see in Southern California this week, Dec. 27-Jan. 2When C.K. McClatchy died in 1989, James again became board chairman. He was named publisher again in 1995 and retired last year. Asked recently how he wanted to be remembered, McClatchy said, “Put down that I was a newspaperman.” SACRAMENTO – James Briggs McClatchy, former chairman of the board of McClatchy Newspapers and the patriarch of a prominent family of journalists, died Friday of complications from an infection following surgery, the company announced in a statement. He was 85. McClatchy was the great-grandson of a founding editor of The Sacramento Bee and the son of the founder and first editor of The Fresno Bee. They are part of a group of newspapers that has become the nation’s second largest with McClatchy’s recent $4.5 billion purchase of the Knight Ridder chain. James McClatchy was born in Sacramento on Dec. 17, 1920, the eldest son of Carlos and Phebe McClatchy. He began his newspaper career in 1947 as a general assignment and education reporter for The Sacramento Bee. He later worked in the company’s Washington, D.C., bureau. In 1980, he became chairman of the board. In 1987, his brother, C.K., became chairman, while James was named publisher of McClatchy Newspapers with responsibility for general corporate planning and acquisitions.
Planetary geologists have long sought to explain regions on Mars where broad areas are littered with shattered, tilted, kilometers-thick chunks of rock. In many cases, these so-called chaotic terrains also seem to be sources of fantastic floods (such as the Aram Chaos crater, upper left; relative elevations range from red [high] to low [blue]). Previously, some teams have proposed that these floods resulted when immense subterranean reservoirs of ice were suddenly melted by the rise of molten material from deep within the Red Planet, and others have suggested that the water was carried from distant regions via aquifers and then somehow abruptly released. A fresh hypothesis suggests that the chaotic terrain in and around Aram Chaos resulted when a buried ice lake trapped in the ancient impact crater suddenly collapsed. In this scenario, the 4.2-kilometer-deep crater started collecting water soon after it formed about 3.5 billion years ago. Then, after the 1.5-km-or-so-deep lake froze, windblown sediments began to accumulate upon its surface. Once that material reached a thickness of 2 kilometers, it blocked the transfer of heat from Mars’s interior, allowing it to melt a large fraction of the buried lake’s ice. Eventually, sometime about 2.5 billion years ago, the weight of the sediments caused the lake’s icy ceiling to collapse, sending immense amounts of water to the surface, the researchers propose online this month in Icarus. Then, that water broke through the crater rim (artist’s concept, lower right), possibly through a weak spot previously eroded by ground water seeping through the rocks at high pressure. Over the course of 30 days or so, possibly less, about 93,000 cubic kilometers of water—almost 80% of the volume of all free-flowing fresh water on Earth today—carved the 15-km-wide, 2.5-km-deep Aram Valley.See more ScienceShots.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)