Explore further More information: aura.gsfc.nasa.gov/Paper: Megacity Emissions and Lifetimes of Nitrogen Oxides Probed from Space, Science 23 September 2011: Vol. 333 no. 6050 pp. 1737-1739. DOI: 10.1126/science.1207824AbstractMegacities are immense sources of air pollutants, with large impacts on air quality and climate. However, emission inventories in many of them still are highly uncertain, particularly in developing countries. Satellite observations allow top-down estimates of emissions to be made for nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), but require poorly quantified a priori information on the NOx lifetime. We present a method for the simultaneous determination of megacity NOx emissions and lifetimes from satellite measurements by analyzing the downwind patterns of NO2 separately for different wind conditions. Daytime lifetimes are ~4 hours at low and mid-latitudes, but ~8 hours in wintertime for Moscow. The derived NOx emissions are generally in good agreement with existing emission inventories, but are higher by a factor of 3 for the Saudi Arabian capital Riyadh. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Citation: Most accurate measurements of big-city pollution (2011, September 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-09-accurate-big-city-pollution.html (PhysOrg.com) — One of NASA’s satellites has provided the most detailed map yet of the pollution generated by some of the world’s biggest cities, and given an indication of the volume of emissions of the nitrogen oxides from direct measurements rather than relying on computer models and a range of assumptions. The scientists, from Germany and the Netherlands, led by Steffen Beirle of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, combined the data from NASA’s Aura satellite with data on known wind patterns. The satellite is equipped with four measuring instruments, including an Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which measures a range of atmospheric particles such as dust, smoke, and chemicals such as the nitrogen oxides. It also measures cloud cover and pressure, which enables tropospheric ozone to be calculated. The OMI was built by the Agency for Aerospace Programs in the Netherlands and the Finnish Meteorological Institute.The focus of Beirle’s study was the nitrogen oxides (NOx, comprising nitric oxide, NO, and nitrogen dioxide, NO2), since they contribute to smog, acid rain, and ozone depletion, and have been linked to health problems in human populations.Nitrogen oxides form part of vehicle emissions, and in the past have tended to be estimated from data on traffic volumes, fuel consumption, and NOx lifetimes, rather than by direct measurement. The satellite data gave the researchers a direct measurement of the emissions, and the data on wind patterns enabled them to identify the sources, resulting in the most accurate information available to date.The study, published in the journal Science, found that the emissions of nitrogen oxides from Riyadh (the capital of Saudi Arabia) were three times greater than previous estimates, while those of megacities such as Tokyo, Madrid, and Moscow were more similar to previous estimates. Some megacities, such as Hong Kong and New York, yielded less useful data because they are so close to other large metropolitan areas producing pollution, which makes the situation more complex.The results of the research could help scientists obtain more reliable information that does not depend on models, which can introduce biases. The results could also lead to the development of better pollution control measures, especially for large cities in the developing world.The Aura satellite was launched in 2004 as part of a program aimed at monitoring the Earth’s atmosphere and effects such as the depletion of the ozone layer. Among the other atmospheric measurements made are changes in levels of aerosols, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane. The satellite also monitors cloud cover around the globe. Aura detects pollution in the Great Lakes region Sequence of mean NO2 column densities around Riyadh (white cross) for different wind conditions. Credit: Steffen Beirl This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
A team of researchers at the University of Montana has found that fledglings and their parents must negotiate to find the right time for the young birds to leave their nest. In their paper published on the open access site Science Advances, the group describes their study of many types of birds and how they figured out when fledglings should leave the nest. Journal information: Science Advances © 2018 Phys.org Many birds build nests to lay their eggs and to hold the young after they hatch until they grow old enough to fly on their own. But how do the baby birds and their parents know when it is time for them to leave? That question, the researchers point out, has not been studied very much. For that reason, they designed and carried out a study to find the answer.The study consisted of videotaping 11 types of songbirds using a high-speed camera—that allowed them to gain a better understanding of the flying skills of birds. They also watched as the birds grew older and carefully noted the time points at which the young birds left the nest—and how they fared.The researchers found that there were differences between species—some parents allowed their offspring to stay in the nest longer while others did not. There were also differences in mortality rates between species. Those that left the nest earlier found it tougher going than those that stayed in the nest longer—fewer of them survived because they had not yet developed strong flying skills. On the other hand, young birds that hung around in the nest longer were more likely to attract predators because they were noisier—increasing the likelihood of the whole brood being eaten. The researchers also found that under artificial conditions in which they forced some parents to keep their young in the nest for a few extra days, the mortality rate was lower—not only did the young birds have more time to develop, they were also protected from predators. Citation: How fledglings and their parents negotiate the best time for young birds to leave the nest (2018, June 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-06-fledglings-parents-young-birds.html Parent gray-headed junco enticing young to leave the nest. Parents hold food away from nest and young come out to get it and this picture captures a young that was just fed out of the nest. Credit: T. E. Martin Explore further Cavity-nesting birds, like this mountain chickadee about to feed its young, have safer nests that allow young to stay in nests longer and develop their wings for improved flight at leaving. Credit: T. E. Martin PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen More information: Thomas E. Martin et al. Age and performance at fledging are a cause and consequence of juvenile mortality between life stages, Science Advances (2018). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar1988AbstractShould they stay or should they leave? The age at which young transition between life stages, such as living in a nest versus leaving it, differs among species and the reasons why are unclear. We show that offspring of songbird species that leave the nest at a younger age have less developed wings that cause poorer flight performance and greater mortality after fledging. Experimentally delayed fledging verified that older age and better developed wings provide benefits of reduced juvenile mortality. Young are differentially constrained in the age that they can stay in the nest and enjoy these fitness benefits because of differences among species in opposing predation costs while in the nest. This tension between mortality in versus outside of the nest influences offspring traits and performance and creates an unrecognized conflict between parents and offspring that determines the optimal age to fledge. The loss of a parent is the most common cause of brood failure in blue tits This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Play Gray-headed juncos fledge from the nest at a young age because their ground nests experience high risk of predation. This young age of fledging results in under-developed wings that do not allow sustained flight, even the day after they left the nest, as shown in this video. In contrast, white-breasted nuthatches nest in safe cavities with low predation risk, allowing young to stay in the nest longer and develop their wings more fully such that they can perform sustained level flight even 2 days before they fledge. Credit: B. Tobalske, N. Wright and T. Martin The researchers suggest that their findings indicate that parent birds and their young must negotiate an optimal time for the young to leave, balancing the dangers of staying longer versus leaving earlier.
A pair of high heels is like a must for every women as it makes them look chic and classy. But carrying it off is difficult as it puts them into difficult situations, says a research.Research from Compeed, a foot-care brand, has found that nearly half those women trying to arrive at work looking their best, get their heels caught in a grate, over a third have fallen over and 29 percent have tripped up the stairs, reports femalefirst.co.uk. The survey, which offers a comparison of high heel wearers across Europe, reveals its hazards are adding to commuting times. But it appears as if nothing will prevent some women from doing the daily commute in their high heels – 58 percent of British women will wear heels even if they are painful or uncomfortable and 13 percent admit they wear their heels even if it makes them late for the office.The survey also reveals reasons why women are prepared to sacrifice both comfort and punctuality for high heels. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Over half of the women surveyed stated that wearing heels gives them confidence and 35 percent say their heels make them feel smart, making it clear why women are determined to wear heels to work despite the pitfalls they face.Sixty percent of women surveyed have admitted to sacrificing their fashion preferences due to discomfort and confessed to wearing flat shoes to work, then surreptitiously changing into their heels at their desks.
New most scientific poll displays that 97% of Indian voters trust award wanting fake journalist Jason Jones to deliver best Lok Sabha coverage in 2014. Known as the Bronto-from-toronto, a six-time Mr. Canada entrant, Jones hopes India will help ‘exercise my mind as well as my temple of a body’. Perhaps unknown for the time being to an Indian audience, astute film-lover will remember him include thetaut, straight-to-video pshychological thriller After Alice and the award-winning television masterpiece ‘Terminal Invasion’, in which aliens in human disguise commandeer a rural airport during a snowstorm. And who could forget the unforgettable 13 minutes of screen time Jason had in the SciFI Channel’s original film Webs, when his character (Junior) and a local team of wacky electicians, led by Sir Richard Greico, teleport to a parallel universe where human-looking alien spiders run amok? But beyond all the glitz and glamour of those prestigious projects, Jason is most proud of the trilogy of ‘based on a true story’ films from which he has been cut: America’s Prince: The JFK Jr. Story, All American Girl: The Mary Kay Letourneau Story and, most recently, the Meg Ryan box office bonanza Against the Ropes: The Jackie Kallen Story, in which he shared absolutely no screen time with Meg Ryan. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Jones, of course, will learn as much about India as possible in the short time he’s here. In an exclusive interview with the star himself, Jones Revealed has learned that Jones will visit The National Gandhi Museum sometime this week. ‘Seeing Ben Kingsleyis performance in 1982’s Gandhi is second only to his work in Iron Man 3, which is a film I saw on opening night because of some important peple I know from being rich celebrity’, boasted Jones. ‘I’ve always wanted to know more about Gandhi since his name comes up frequently in conversations, and I feel like I have Googled him a long time ago’, the humble and relatable star continued. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix Asked what his hopes are for his first trip to the sub-continent, Jones replied ‘Having stayed at the Trump Taj Mahal Hotel and Casino at Atlantic City New Jersey I think I have a pretty good understanding of India, but I can only hope that the nation will live up to expectations set when I ate lunch at the Indian Pavillion at Disney’s EPCOT center while waiting fot the 1: 15 showing of Captian EO to begin. The flatbread I had was so good I missed the showing, but it was Ok because I caught the 1: 45’.
Kolkata: West Bengal has registered a rise in the number of trafficking cases in recent years as more people are coming forward to report such incidences, a state minister has said. Over the years, the state government, with the help of various welfare organisations, has been able to convince people to fight the menace, Minister of State for Women and Child Development Shashi Panja said.”People often indulge in blame game, pointing fingers at the state government for the increase in the number of trafficking incidents. That isn’t the case. In the past few years, we have seen more people mustering courage to talk about their plight,” she asserted. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsPanja was speaking at the seventh edition of ‘Anti-Trafficking in Persons Conclave’, hosted recently by the US consulate in Kolkata, in association with Delhi-based NGO Shakti Vahini.The two-day meet saw students, activists, journalists, government officials and security personnel coming together to find a solution to the issue that had been plaguing India and its neighbours.Lauding Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee for the internationally acclaimed Kanyashree scheme, the minister said over 47 lakh girls have benefited from the move. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedKanyashree aims to ensure that girls stay in school and delay their marriages till at least age 18. As per the scheme, Rs 750 is paid annually to girls studying in class 8 and above, and a one-time grant of Rs 25,000 is paid after she turns 18 provided she is engaged in an academic or occupational pursuit and unmarried.”The scheme is a safety net for many girls, who wish to study and do something with their life,” Panja added.Echoing similar sentiments, US Consul General Craig Hall, who addressed the inaugural session of the meet, said human trafficking was a global problem. The US and India, as enduring partners of the 21st century, are committed to providing leadership on issues of shared interests, including the strengthening of human rights, he said.”In the last seven years, we have seen great examples of collaboration between civil society organisations and the government to combat trafficking,” Hall added.Sharing his experiences, Shrikumar Bandopadhyay, the IG of Sashastra Seema Bal, Siliguri frontier, said the porous international borders often make it easy for traffickers to escape law.”We visit schools in remote areas to generate awareness among the youths about the safe use of social media and the risks of giving in to temptations,” he said.”In the past two years, we have rescued at least 150 victims from the clutches of traffickers,” he stated.Ravi Kant, the founder of NGO Shakti Vahini, said the conclave gave all stakeholders a chance to brainstorm ways to tackle the global menace.”The two-day meet is a great occasion to strengthen our fight against forced labour and human trafficking. It is time that all stakeholders unite to end the menace once and for all,” he added.
Kolkata: A fake doctor was arrested from Gorabazar area of Murshidabad on Thursday. The police also arrested his associate. The arrested doctor has been identified as Sadananda Sarkar. His chamber has been sealed.The police said the doctor used to treat patients suffering from venereal diseases and enjoyed a highly successful practice in the area. He had been treating patients for many years and even used to extort money from the patients. Hoping that they will be cured soon, the patients used to fulfill his demands. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe matter came to the fore when a patient from Bhagawangola lodged a complaint with the police after failing to get results. The doctor, however, continued to assure him and took fees for treatment. This raised suspicion of the patient.Posing as patients, the police visited the doctor’s chamber and began interrogation. The doctor failed to show any document or registration number to the police and finally broke down. He was arrested along with his associate and the chamber was sealed.The police said that till now, eight fake doctors have been arrested from Murshidabad.
Kolkata: A woman was held on Sunday on charge of strangling her one-year-old son due to frequent family quarrels in West Bengal’s West Midnapore district, police said. Kajol Hembrem, 28, of Kharagpur’s Jakpur village killed her son in the morning when other family members were not present and also tried to commit suicide but failed, police added. She later went to the Kharagpur police station with the boy’s body and surrendered. “Her questioning revealed that she bore a grudge against her husband and in-laws due to frequent quarrels in the family. She strangled her child after a heated argument with her family,” an officer from the police station said. Police said the child was rushed to the Kharagpur Medical College where he was declared dead. “We are questioning her. Other family members will also be quizzed,” the officer added.
Shiv Sena has sacked party workers who blackened the face of a Right to Information (RTI) activist at Latur in Marathwada region of western Indian state Maharashtra, Yuva Sena chief Aaditya Thackeray said here on Saturday.“Heard of the unfortunate incident in Latur. The party strongly condemns the disgraceful act. Those involved have been removed from the party,” Aaditya, son of Shiv Sena president Uddhav Thackeray, tweeted.Following the recent high-profile, face-blackening offensive on Observer Research Foundation Chairman Sudheendra Kulkarni for hosting the book launch of former Pakistan foreign minister Khurshid Mahmood Kasuri in Mumbai, Sena activists on Friday blackened the face of RTI activist Mallikarjun Bhaikatti in Latur. The activist was beaten up and his face splattered with ink after he ‘threatened’ to expose irregularities in construction of a local educational institution’s premises.
Kolkata: A train carrying hundreds of people stranded in the flood-ravaged Kerala reached here, a South Eastern Railway (SER) spokesman said here today. The passengers, mostly labourers from West Bengal, reached Howrah station late last night in the 21-coach special train from Thiruvananthapuram. Two more trains, which left Ernakulam on Sunday evening, are scheduled to reach the city today, the spokesman Sanjay Ghosh said. Mostly labourers in different professions like skilled workers to hotel staff, these people were stranded in several places in Kerala, which has been severely affected by floods. The passengers were ferried to their destinations in buses arranged by the West Bengal government. The relatives of the passengers heaved a sigh of relief with their near and dear ones reaching safely. A railways medical team, including two doctors, accompanied the passengers and they reported that nobody needed any medical assistance, he said.
Kolkata: Four persons were killed and one injured when a car collided head on with a truck.The accident occurred on Purulia-Borakar road near Lipania-Bodashini area on Monday morning. The accident caused traffic congestion in the area for nearly an hour. The victims have been identified as Chiranjit Kundu (32), Sujit Mondal (34), Tapan Bhattacharya (32) and Sujay Das (32). They were residents of Asansol in West Burdwan. Police said the victims went to attend a marriage ceremony at Purulia town on Sunday evening. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life They started off from Purulia town on early Monday morning to return home. According to the investigation, police came to know that they rented a Tata Indica car from Asansol. While they were returning home they met with a fatal road accident as the car hit a speeding truck coming from the opposite direction. Eyewitnesses told police the car was running at a top speed as a result of which it fell at a distance after it hit the truck. Some locals rushed to the spot after hearing a loud thud. They took part in the rescue operation. The victims were brought out of the mangled portion of the car and were rushed to Deben Mahato Sadar Hospital where four of the victims were declared brought dead. The injured person was later shifted to a private hospital as his condition deteriorated. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedAccording to the district police, the health condition of the injured person was stated to be critical. After being informed police reached the spot and seized the truck and the car. The traffic movement also resumed. The truck driver and the helper fled the spot immediately after the accident leaving the vehicle at the accident site. Police have started a detailed probe. They are yet to ascertain the exact cause of the accident. The investigating officers are examining if the driver of the car had fallen asleep at the time of the accident or the car had developed any technical glitch. Preliminary investigation suggests that the car changed its lane which might have led to the accident. Raids are being conducted to nab the truck driver.
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee announced that her government will be providing a subsidy of Rs 1.5 lakh to encourage women in rolling out vehicles under theGatidhara scheme. Banerjee flagged off 20 electric buses, 20 CNG buses and 10 pink taxis that are owned and driven by women from Nabanna on Wendnesday. “We provide a subsidy of Rs 1 lakh under the Gatidhara scheme for unemployed youth who want to roll out vehicles. To encourage women and to make them self-dependent we will be giving Rs 1.5 lakh to women who will roll out vehicles under the Gatidhara scheme. It will be a major stride towards women empowerment. We have plans to introduce another 1000 pink taxis in the city,” Banerjee said. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseIt may be mentioned that more than 36000 youths has already been provided subsidy under the scheme. “Today (Wednesday) we have rolled our 20 electric buses. We will be introducing 60 more electric buses within a period of three months. Our schemes such as Gatidhara and Jaladhara have provided employment to a number of youths in the state.” Banerjee said. The Jaladhara scheme that was introduced in April 2017 provides financial assistance to convert semi-mechanised boats to mechanised ones to avert accidents. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataThe state government provides financial assistance of around 30 per cent of the total cost of bringing in the mechanised boats in place of semi-mechanised ones. The amount for the scheme is maximum Rs 1 lakh. According to a senior official in the state Transport department, the electric buses that have been introduced will be running in three routes from Airport to Joka, Shyambazar to Nabanna and Tollygunge to Bidhannagar. “We will have more routes with the introduction of more electric buses. Charging of electric buses will not be a problem with our department already putting up facilities of 55 charging stations in the city,” state Transport minister Suvendu Adhikari said. The CNG buses will presently ply in Asansol Duragpur area where there is a supply of CNG gas. Banerjee also inaugurated the renovated Jadavpur 8B bus stand through remote control. The total cost for revamp has been Rs 4.54 crore. “We are taking up renovation of more bus stands in the city for the benefit of the passengers that includes the one at Joka and Baruipur,” she said.
Kolkata: A man has been allegedly arrested for murder by officers of Charu Market police station here on Thursday night. The accused, identified as Bumba Dey, has confessed to the crime. He was produced before the Alipore Court and remanded to police custody till March 30. After Dey’s arrest from Tollygunj Circular Road, he told the police that he roughed up Sardar under the influence of alcohol. According to the police, on Tuesday night, Somnath Sardar, 35, was found lying unconsciously inside an abandoned warehouse located on Dr Deodhar Rahman Road in Charu Market area. He was immediately rushed to M R Bangur Hospital where doctors declared him brought dead. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseDuring the preliminary probe, officers came to know that Dey had badly beaten up Sardar. While questioning local residents, some children said on Tuesday night Dey had forcefully taken them to the warehouse. Dey saw Sardar sleeping at the warehouse and allegedly started beating him. Scared by the incident, the children ran from the place. After the autopsy examination, the surgeon said marks of deep injury could be seen on Sardar’s body. Due to the injuries, excessive internal bleeding occurred, which led to Sardar’s death.
Be it fashion jewellery or precious silver and gold, taking care of how you store them can ensure they last long, suggest experts. Experts have given a few tips on how to take care of your jewellery pieces:Clean your jewellery before storing: Sweat will change the colour of the pieces and make them look old. Therefore, it is very important that before storing, you wipe off all the sweat from the jewellery pieces and store it at concealed places. Ideally, store them in a jewellery box with multiple slots or store them separately in boxes they came in to avoid scratching. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAirtight box or zip locks: Store your jewellery in an airtight box or zip lock to preserve the polish for a longer time. Your precious pearl pieces should be stored in a cloth-lined jewellery box or wrapped a soft cloth to maintain the shine and quality of pearls.Use anti-tarnish paper: While storing your fashion jewellery, it will be great if you wrap each piece in anti-tarnish paper or an eyeglass cloth. Anti-tarnish paper will maintain the shine of the jewellery. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveSeparation is necessary: Do not keep two different type of jewellery in one box. It is very essential to store your jewellery in a separate jewellery box or secured containers that will prevent your baubles from moving around and preventing them from getting scratched and broken.Avoid wearing delicate jewellery while cooking, gymming, swimming, or any household chores. Stay away from extreme exposure to heat and light as gemstones like kunzite can fade or discolour.Always put on your jewellery last when dressing. It should be done after the use of make-up, cosmetics, perfume and lotions to avoid damage to delicate items. Clean your jewellery with warm water, mild soap and soft brush in a glass bowl.
One of India’s most-read authors, Ruskin Bond has said that he tries to strike a positive note when writing for children and feels a certain responsibility as an author. The Landour-based writer, when asked what he felt about his vast readership, said that since he writes so much for young readers, he tries to strike a positive chord. “For adults, it doesn’t matter, you can strike a negative note, because by the time they’ve grown up, they lose their innocence,” the 84-year-old Padma Bhushan recipient said at an event. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfSharing nuggets from his own childhood, the author of ‘The Blue Umbrella’ (also cinematically adapted by the same name), said that he shares a deep connection with the hills. “I belong to the hills. Surroundings change, the place changes a bit, but my relationship remains more or less the same, my feelings for the hills and for the people of the hills,” the author said. “It goes back 50 years or more. I don’t like to see too much change, in the sense that I don’t like too much building, but it’s inevitable,” he further added. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveNow, in an upcoming compilation of 14 holiday stories for children – ‘The Puffin Book Of Holiday Stories’ – Bond’s young readers will be treated to one of his another literary gems. His latest children’s story is published in the just-launched fun anthology of adventure, humour, ghosts, mysteries, friends, mangoes, family dramas and little boys and girls. If the list of authors is nothing short of illustrious – Rabindranath Tagore, Sudha Murty, Paro Anand, Khyrunnisa A, Subhadra Sen Gupta, Nandini Nayar, Prashant Pinge, Himanjali Sankar, Nayanika Mahtani, Shabnam Minwalla, Manjula Padmanbhan – the children’s book comes with an introduction by Bond. “In India, not enough importance is given to writing for children. And what could be more important than the enrichment of young minds with great literature? “This is when we discover ourselves, our own potential, and, more often than not, we’ll do it through what we read and write,” reads his short introduction to the paperback. Advising his young friends to take a bag full of books wherever they go, he said: “Holidays can become tedious without something to read.”
Making exercise a stress outlet may help students attain recommended amounts of physical activity and to maintain that routine, students need social support from family and friends, said researchers including one of an Indian origin. “Accessing internal and external sources of inspiration and resilience is an effective and sustainable model for positive change,” said Assistant Professor at the University of Mississippi. “Physicians who want to encourage their patients to get more physical activity should suggest the techniques from this study,” he added. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfFor the study published in The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, researchers surveyed 135 college students, assessing their willingness to exercise for the recommended 150 minutes per week. Participants were asked to weigh pros, like improved energy and health, against perceived disadvantages, like being tired and not having enough time for academics or leisure. Once convinced that more exercise would benefit them, students were asked what they needed to get started. The single most significant factor was behavioural confidence which involves visualisation of future performance and external sources of confidence like an encouraging mentor. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveAccording to the survey, respondents indicated that sustaining the weekly 150 minutes of exercise would require the support of family and friends, as well as an emotional shift, in which students would use exercise as an outlet for stressors. Respondents also said that social changes like making friends who also exercise regularly would improve their ability to persist. “Nearly half of all adults in the US do not engage in the recommended 150 minutes of physical activity per week. This basic lack of exercise is tied to myriad health problems, so it is important to address it early,” said study lead author, a Professor at the Jackson State University.
In a plot twist out of Umberto Eco’s The Name of the Rose, three rare books from the 16th and 17th centuries held in a library collection were found to be laced with deadly poison, according to a paper published on June 27, 2018, by researchers of the University of Southern Denmark. The last thing that the researchers expected was poison.“The reason why we took these three rare books to the X-ray lab was because the library had previously discovered that medieval manuscript fragments, such as copies of Roman law and canonical law, were used to make their covers,” wrote Jakob Povl Holck and Kaare Lund Rasmussen in the academic journal The Conversation. “It is well documented that European bookbinders in the 16th and 17th centuries used to recycle older parchment.”To discover the possible age of the recycled materials contained in the cover and bindings of the books stored at the University of Southern Denmark, the researchers used the most modern technology available: a series of X-ray fluorescence analyses (micro-XRF).University of Southern Denmark.“This technology displays the chemical spectrum of a material by analysing the characteristic “secondary” radiation that is emitted from the material during a high-energy X-ray bombardment,” wrote Holck and Rasmussen. “Micro-XRF technology is widely used within the fields of archaeology and art, when investigating the chemical elements of pottery and paintings, for example.”While trying to identify the Latin texts used in the books, the researchers were frustrated by a layer of green paint that obscured the old handwritten letters.The researchers were trying to read medieval Latin manuscripts that were used as covers for the three books.They decided to analyze the mysterious paint, and XRF tests revealed “that the green pigment layer was arsenic. This chemical element is among the most toxic substances in the world and exposure may lead to various symptoms of poisoning, the development of cancer and even death.”Depending on the type of arsenic used and the duration of exposure, symptoms of arsenic poisoning include an irritated stomach, irritated intestines, nausea, diarrhea, skin changes and irritation of the lungs. The exposure’s harmful effect has not gone away, either.Why would anyone use poisonous paint on these obscure books?The answer seems to lie in the 19th century. Arsenic was commonly used to create the “Paris green” paints and lacquers and was most likely employed on these books by well-meaning restorers.10 Most Poisonous Things on Earth!Wrote the university researchers: “The arsenic pigment – a crystalline powder – is easy to manufacture and has been commonly used for multiple purposes, especially in the 19th century. The size of the powder grains influence on the colour toning, as seen in oil paints and lacquers. Larger grains produce a distinct darker green – smaller grains a lighter green. The pigment is especially known for its colour intensity and resistance to fading.”Why would anyone want to improve the aesthetics of 17th century books?Arsenic trioxide is a white, crystalline powder that closely resembles sugar. It has no odor or taste.Most likely, artistic effect was not the only thing on their minds in the 19th century. There was a byproduct of using the “Paris green” color: it protected manuscripts against insects, rats, and other vermin. People of the time might not have understood why, but the paint kept the books safe.By the second half of the 19th century, however, the deadliness of arsenic was known, and it was no longer used as a paint pigment. “Grim stories of green Victorian wallpapers taking the lives of children in their bedrooms are known to be factual.”Paris green paint. Photo by Chrish Goulet CC BY-SA 3.0However, the farmers still made use of it on crops. “Other pigments were found to replace Paris green in paintings and the textile industry etc. In the mid 20th century, the use on farmlands was phased out as well.”Read another story from us: Solving the mystery behind the 13th Century parchment in the Vatican Secret ArchivesAs for the books in the Danish library collection, they are now stored in separate cardboard boxes with safety labels in a ventilated cabinet.“We also plan on digitising them to minimise physical handling,” wrote the researchers. “One wouldn’t expect a book to contain a poisonous substance. But it might.”Nancy Bilyeau, a former staff editor at ‘Entertainment Weekly,’ ‘Rolling Stone,’ and ‘InStyle,’ has written a trilogy of historical thrillers for Touchstone Books. For more information, go to www.nancybilyeau.com.
Conor McGregor and Floyd Mayweather each released the first videos of them training for their upcoming August 26 publicity stunt. If you watch them side-by-side, the difference in the boxing skill from the two jumps off the screen.The 49-0 Mayweather looks like he hasn’t lost much in his “retirement” and still looks lighting quick. McGregor, on the other hand, looks like a slow UFC fighter who’s throwing punches in quick drying cement. You don’t have to be Bert Sugar to see that McGregor is going to get dismantled by Mayweather. The only real question is will he get knocked out.Anyone who says they believe McGregor can win this fight after watching this side-by-side is either a fool or a liar. This is going to be a massacre.Mayweather and McGregor training videos from today side by side. ? pic.twitter.com/cAJDPy9Dwn— BlackSportsOnline (@BSO) June 29, 2017 Advertisement
Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. Every entrepreneur would love to be more productive and complete day-to-day tasks more efficiently, resulting in more time to allocate towards business growth.With so many web-based tools and software to choose from, it can be quite overwhelming. I’ve put together a list of my eight favorite tools that I have used personally as well as have seen implemented by successful online business owners I deal with on a daily basis.1. HootsuiteHootsuite is a social media-management tool suitable for businesses of all sizes. With over 10 million active users, this is one of the most user-friendly social media-management dashboards in existence. Smaller organizations can easily schedule Facebook posts and Tweets as well as monitor their social media return on investment with custom analytic reports.Larger organizations can manage full-blown social campaigns among multiple users, departments and locations. While it can help larger companies better manage their social media staff, it can also help new startups that can’t afford to hire a full-time dedicated social media manager properly execute campaigns.Related: The Best Content Marketing Tools to Help You Work Smarter, Not Harder2. BasecampOrganization is key — if you are constantly searching through your email inbox to find messages or shuffling through sticky notes to locate information then you need Basecamp in your life. This tool is great for project management — both internal tasks as well as client projects. You can quickly communicate with members of your team, clients, vendors and freelancers all in one place.Having a simple project-management solution allows you to easily look in one place to get a complete status update. You can eliminate phone calls, emails and meetings — everyone is literally on the same page.3. FreshBooksAccounting can be a complete nightmare and time suck, but thanks to FreshBooks you can easily track expenses, create and send invoices, and handle all of your business accounting in a single dashboard. You can quickly see how much money you have in outstanding invoices, and you can see when clients opened and viewed invoices. This eliminates the classic “I never received it” excuse, as you can see the exact date and time that the invoice was opened and viewed.The ability to create invoices on the go will actually help you get paid faster as well. Your team can create invoices and bill clients before they even leave an office or meeting. As entrepreneurs we all want to get paid faster, and this is a tool that definitely helps to facilitate that.4. DripThere are several email-marketing solutions, but Drip tops my list for many reasons. Some other options do one or two things very well while lacking in other areas, while this piece of software does everything very well. The product is perfect if you actively market content. Write an ebook, put together an email sequence and let Drip do the hard work for you.We use Drip at FE International to automate our email sequences and feed content to relevant people. It helps build trust, credibility and is simple to use — great for non-techies like myself!5. DropboxEntrepreneurs are becoming more mobile by the year. Having remote workers located all over the globe is a common occurrence in most startups, and a tool such as Dropbox allows you to securely store documents and files in one place, making it easy to share them with anyone.Related: 4 Must-Have Ecommerce AutomationsDropbox not only frees up space on your computer, but it also makes sure you never lose a file again. No more needing to send presentations out to team members via email. No more worrying about employees keeping files safe. This gives you security, convenience and peace of mind.6. ParselyYou have probably heard about the importance of content marketing several times. In fact, you are probably publishing content on your blog regularly — but do you know if it is working? How is your audience responding to your content? What kind of ROI is your content marketing returning? Parsely is a tool that answers these questions for you.When you can quickly identify content strategies that are working to expand your online reach it allows you to spend more time producing more content and less time trying to fire out what is working and what isn’t. Focusing all of your content production around strategies that are proven to work means you will experience a higher ROI from your campaign.7. DeskProviding excellent customer service is a must for any business, and Desk, an application from SalesForce, can help you provide effortless customer service. With this app you can begin to offer online customer support — answering pre-sale questions as well as addressing complaints quickly before they develop into major fires. You can look at data and see how long it takes to answer customer service inquiries, allowing you to establish benchmark response times to strive for or beat.One of the other great features is the self-help option, which allows you to publish answers to common questions and for individuals to search the knowledge pool before submitting a support request. A thorough knowledge pool can help eliminate a significant amount of customer support inquiries — this reduces your expenses and work force.8. GoToMeetingAs I mentioned above, remote working is common among startups and even large established companies are converting positions into remote jobs, allowing their employees to work from home. GoToMeeting allows you to conduct video conferences in HD quality, share your screen — desktop or iPad — with your audience, and record the entire meeting to share with those that couldn’t make it.Not only is this tool great for organizations to use internally, but it can also be used to conduct webinars to generate leads or to offer demonstrations to potential clients. The days of the traditional conference call are long gone — video conferencing is the new standard.Do you have any more to add to this list? If you use web-based tools that you think other entrepreneurs could benefit from leave your suggestions in the comments section below.Related: 5 Tools That Can Eliminate Inefficiencies and Free Up Your Time Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global 6 min read Register Now » Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. April 1, 2015
Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. July 8, 2015 Mobile networks and Wi-Fi have long occupied their own distinct territories on the airwaves. Cellular operators stick to licensed spectrums, which they typically pay billions to use exclusively. Meanwhile, Wi-Fi takes advantage of a vast swathe of spectrum known as the unlicensed airwaves, which costs nothing. That distinction is one of the main reasons why connecting to Wi-Fi is cheap and often free, while connecting to a mobile network is not.The line between Wi-Fi and mobile has existed for two decades, and it’s produced enormous growth and innovation in both industries, but mobile operators are now changing the game by crossing over into Wi-Fi’s turf. A new technology called LTE-Unlicensed, or LTE-U, will allow mobile carriers to dip into unlicensed frequencies for additional capacity, essentially creating 4G networks in Wi-Fi’s airwaves. This has the Wi-Fi industry worried, and has ended up pitting mobile industry giants like T-Mobile, Verizon and Qualcomm against Wi-Fi advocates like Google, Cisco Systems, and other cable providers“The worse case scenario is that LTE operates in unlicensed spectrum in a way that does not pay due regard to other users, making the Wi-Fi experience significant degraded,” said Edgar Figueroa, president and CEO of the Wi-Fi Alliance, a global non-profit that supports Wi-Fi technologies. “In such a case, bandwidth is eliminated from use by Wi-Fi because it’s being used exclusively by LTE.”The ins and outs of unlicensed airwavesBefore you jump all over mobile operators, keep in mind that they have every right to use these airwaves. The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands are called “unlicensed” for a reason. Everyone is free to use these frequencies, regardless of whether or not they’re an operator adding bandwidth to a 4G network or a just an average Joe setting up a Wi-Fi router in your home.However, there are some rules everyone using these frequencies must follow. First, users must transmit at low power, which is why Wi-Fi’s weaker signals won’t cover much more than your apartment. Second, if there are other nearby users trying to use the same frequencies then individuals will have to share.Wi-Fi does this sharing through a protocol called, quite simply, Listen Before Talk. A Wi-Fi network is constantly scanning its environment looking for competing signals. If it detects them, it doesn’t transmit, waiting several milliseconds before trying again. It’s the same basic principle as talking at a dinner party. Everyone waits their turn to speak rather than everyone trying to talk all at once.This kind of frequency sharing allows multiple Wi-Fi networks to live in the same physical space, and it’s been one of the key reasons for Wi-Fi’s huge proliferation. Wi-Fi isn’t the unlicensed band’s only tenant, though. It has to share the same space with Bluetooth, cordless phones, wireless remotes and even baby monitors, but for the most part those technologies have managed to co-exist peacefully. The introduction of LTE-U, though, represents a major new incursion into unlicensed airwaves.LTE-U basically is intended to supercharge our mobile connections in places where mobile data demand is the highest. LTE-U combines your regular connection to the 4G network with a new transmission in the unlicensed band, effectively doubling your bandwidth. For example, if you were humping along with a 10 Mbps link and suddenly entered an LTE-U coverage area, you would find your connection speed boosted to 20 Mbps or more.Due to the low-power requirements for unlicensed bands, operators can’t use LTE-U everywhere. Mainly it’s an indoor technology, but inside of buildings is exactly where the vast majority of mobile data consumption happens today. LTE-U could add a lot of capacity to an operator’s networks, and because operators wouldn’t have to sink billions of dollars into buying airwaves, they could deliver all of that capacity at a much lower cost, which could—at least, theoretically—be passed on to consumers.Why Wi-Fi is freaked outWi-Fi Alliance’s Figueroa has made it clear he doesn’t want to boot the mobile operators out of the unlicensed airwaves, which would be antithetical to the idea of shared band. What he and other Wi-Fi advocates want is to ensure that LTE plays by the same rules as the band’s other users currently do.In fact, the Alliance and other Wi-Fi standards groups are working closely with their mobile industry counterparts to create a standardized technology similar to LTE-U called LTE-Licenses Assisted Access. LTE-LAA would employ the same Listen Before Talk protocols as Wi-Fi, which Figueroa believes will allow the two technologies to co-exist peacefully.The problem is LTE-LAA gear and chips won’t be commercial available for several years, and mobile operators in several countries—notably the U.S., South Korea and India—don’t want to wait. Both Verizon and T-Mobile US plan to roll out LTE-U network gear and devicesin 2016.LTE-U uses a less stringent sharing protocol than Listen Before Talk, and the Wi-Fi industry fears that it will give mobile operators an unfair advantage, effectively muscling Wi-Fi users off their networks. According to comments Google filed with the Federal Communications Commission, an LTE-U transmission sharing the same frequency channel with a Wi-Fi transmission could degrade the Wi-Fi connection as much as 75%. The result, according to Google, would be a much better experience for users on the mobile network, but a much crappier experience for users on Wi-Fi.One of LTE-U’s biggest backers, Qualcomm, has dismissed those fears. The telecom company argues that while LTE-U uses a different sharing protocol than Wi-Fi’s Listen Before Talk, it’s perfectly adequate to ensure that Wi-Fi and LTE-U cooperate peacefully, said Prakash Sangam, Qualcomm director of technical marketing. Furthermore, Qualcomm has a vested interest in keeping Wi-Fi safe, Sangam said, since the company has its own Wi-Fi technology division, Atheros, so creating a technology that would run amuck in the unlicensed frequencies would cannibalize one of its major businesses.“Fair co-existence with Wi-Fi has been our main concern since we started the design phase on LTE-U,” Sangam said.He added that LTE-U actually might be a better neighbor to Wi-Fi than Wi-Fi itself. Typically Wi-Fi access points in any given location act independently, creating a constant over-the-air negotiation for signals. In contrast, LTE-U is part of an operator’s centrally managed cellular network. This type of arrangement would mean LTE-U access points would coordinate their activities in crowded airwaves, making more efficient use of the frequencies available and improving the data experience for Wi-Fi and LTE users alike.However, the Wi-Fi industry has a different view about that kind of centrally managed network. Instead of using that central coordination to the benefit of Wi-Fi, LTE-U could use that capability to force Wi-Fi networks off the air, much like the individual cars on a racing team can cooperate to pass competing cars on a track.Solving the impasseThe public will eventually find out if the Wi-Fi industry’s fears are warranted when T-Mobile and Verizon’s LTE-U networks go live next year, although Wi-Fi advocates don’t want to wait that long. They’re asking the FCC to step in now, and put restrictions on the types of radio technologies operators can use in the unlicensed bands.Even if the Wi-Fi and mobile camps sort out their differences and find a way to fairly share the unlicensed frequencies, there will still be some big repercussions for both industries. A lot of our smartphone traffic today already rides over Wi-Fi networks, but as LTE-U goes live you can expect some of that traffic to shift back onto mobile networks. While Wi-Fi access is largely free today, mobile operators charge for their data connections.Also, the unlicensed band is going to get a lot more crowded. LTE-U will become a major new tenant on the unlicensed band, and regardless of how well it cooperates with Wi-Fi, space is going to get a bit tight. Anyone who’s tried and failed to connect to a Wi-Fi hotspot at a crowded coffee shop or conference center, knows there’s already a limited amount of unlicensed bandwidth to go around.Ultimately, a move onto Wi-Fi’s turf by mobile operators demonstrates just how much interest there is for finding new uses for the unlicensed bands. Maybe, the government should take the hint and open up more airwaves not just for Wi-Fi, but for everyone. This story originally appeared on Fortune Magazine Register Now » 8 min read Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global
Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own. Register Now » Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right. Following a July ruling against medical testing laboratory LabMD (which is now out of business), the Federal Trade Commission has emerged as a central regulator of cybersecurity practices for U.S. businesses. The FTC’s mandate to act on “unfair or deceptive” business practices that could harm consumers is being interpreted in a way that means any business that handles (and might potentially mishandle) consumer data is liable to fall under the organization’s scrutiny.That’s almost every business today.Related: 5 Cybersecurity Tools Your Company Should HaveSome background: The Commission reversed an administrative law judge’s ruling and found that LabMD, a clinical laboratory for physicians, failed to protect the sensitive personal and medical information of consumers. From 2001 to 2014, LabMD collected this information for over 750,000 patients.Based on the LabMD ruling, which cited a lack of “even basic precautions to protect the sensitive consumer information maintained on its computer system,” it appears that actual harm from a data breach doesn’t necessarily need to be proven if the potential for harm exists.The ruling sends a clear and sobering signal to business owners: You must make significant, demonstrable efforts to protect yourself from data breaches or face the consequences.Related: Court Rules FTC Can Come After Your Company After a Cyber AttackA glimpse of what’s to come“LabMD’s security practices were unreasonable, lacking even basic precautions to protect the sensitive consumer information maintained on its computer system,” the FTC ruled. “Among other things, it failed to use an intrusion detection system or file integrity monitoring; neglected to monitor traffic coming across its firewalls; provided essentially no data security training to its employees; and never deleted any of the consumer data it had collected.”For small business owners who have a seemingly endless list of concerns to address, making time to focus on data security best practices is sometimes difficult to justify. But it has to be done: The FTC and other government entities are only going to sharpen their focus on data security and consumer privacy in the coming years. Data integrity must become a core aspect of doing business (rather than a minor detail that can be overlooked).With this in mind, small business owners should be aware of a few common misconceptions surrounding data security, as well as the best practices they should rely on to address them:Misconception No. 1: Data security is a ‘big business’ problem.A surprising number of small business owners look at data security as something they don’t need to worry about. You’ll hear owners say, “Nobody is interested in the data we have. We’re not Sony or a government agency.”But the truth is that cybercriminals are most certainly interested in your data, and according to Fox Business, 43 percent of worldwide attacks in 2015 were against small businesses with fewer than 250 employees.On top of that, the prevalence of ransomware attacks means that it no longer matters if your data is important to other people. If it’s important to you — the owner — hackers can take it and force you to pay large sums of money to get it back.As a small business owner, you must consider it critical to have a managed-data backup system in place. This won’t prevent attacks, but it can significantly mitigate harm to your business if one does occur, especially in the case of a ransomware attack.Misconception No. 2: One solution for all threatsSmall business owners are especially susceptible to believing that a single solution will defend against all possible threats. Security is better viewed as a managed process.Related: 10 Data-Security Measures You Can’t Do WithoutSimply having some legacy IT solutions in place shouldn’t let you develop a false sense of security and avoid asking important questions, including: Are we addressing vulnerabilities through security patching? Are we getting regular reports of that activity so that, in the event of a breach, it’s documented and we can respond effectively to an audit? Is our firewall being actively managed?You need to have a managed security system in place, one that includes regular reports on security measures, potential threats and updates. If you need more information, conduct some research on third-party managed security service providers, which can offer on-premise and remote solutions depending on your needs.Misconception No. 3: Cybersecurity training is for the IT guys.Data security isn’t just IT’s responsibility — it needs to be a priority for all employees. Your entire network can be compromised if, for instance, just one employee falls victim to a phishing email.The threat landscape is constantly changing. Implementing an employee-training program and being able to demonstrate that security should be a priority for all employees and is becoming increasingly important. Invest in regular training sessions and implement policies to reinforce the information shared. Misconception No. 4: The price isn’t right.Small business owners often look at security solutions and say, “That sounds expensive.” In reality, the cost of these services is far from prohibitive, and the services can scale as businesses and their needs grow.What’s more, forgoing security solutions means you risk the much higher price tag that accompanies a breach. Reports from Kaspersky Lab indicate that small businesses spend an average $38,000 recovering from just one data breach.Before making an investment, then, conduct a thorough assessment of your current security measures. A security audit will give you a good idea of where you stand and make you aware of any serious vulnerability. Related: 4 Strategies Small Businesses Can Use To Avoid a Data BreachLike any unfortunate event, data breaches can happen to any business — not just those with big names. The FTC ruling in LabMD demonstrates how the government is placing more and more liability responsibility on business owners to protect their client data.If yours is a small business, just claiming “I didn’t know” will no longer suffice when a data breach does occur. No matter what the size or industry of your business, make data security a top priority. 6 min read February 20, 2017 Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals